Interventional Radiology, Interventional Neuroradiology and Interventional Oncology

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Interventional Radiology, Interventional Neuroradiology and Interventional Oncology

Interventional Radiology

Interventional Radiology (IR)  is a rapidly growing branch of medicine and a therapeutic branch of radiology.

Foundations of Interventional Radiological procedures are going back to the 1960s, but the specificity, complexity and depth of these procedures have increased recent years. By this way, as methods and techniques for broad spectrum of procedures have developed, interventional treatments of more complex and untouchable diseases have become possible.

IR does not specialize in single organ or organ system but implements treatments of many organ systems with non-surgical methods which can or cannot be done with surgery. Whereas most of the other medical specialities like cardiology, neurology or urology  perform treatments of a single organ system.

Procedures in IR are performed under  guidance of imaging techniques such as ultrasound, fluoroscopy or tomography thus being much less invasive than surgical treatments. Generally, these procedures are more comfortable for patients. Because there are no wide incisions and the procedures are performed with less pain, less risk and shorter recovery time.

Interventional radiologists direct the catheters (plastic tubes in few millimeters thickness) through the blood vessels or percutaneously (directly puncturing the skin) under image guidance. Your Interventional Radiologist will plan your procedure by examining your previously obtained Radiological images like ultrasound, flouroscopy, CT or MRI. These procedures are performed under local and general anesthesia, if needed.

Interventional Radiological procedures are divided into two main groups: Vascular (being directed through blood vessels) and Nonvascular (by directly puncturing the the organ). Vascular procedures are also divided into Neurovascular interventions (associated with brain vessels) and Peripheral Vascular Interventions (associated with vessels of the body). Diagnostic Angiography is one of the most commonly performed vascular procedures. But the most important part of IR is therapeutic procedures that are performed by using angiographic techniques. These usually involve the opening of narrowed or clogged vessels  (balloon dilatation, stenting, clot removal ) and the closure (embolization) of problematic or bleeding vessels. However beside these, a wide range of different vascular therapeutic procedures are being applied.

Interventional Neuroradiology

A fıeld of IR specialized in diagnosis and endovascular (through the vessel) treatment of  vessels of head and neck, also treatment of some vascular tumors. Almost all brain aneurysms (ballooning of the vessel) which are the most common cause of bleeding in brain can be treated without open surgery by catheters inserted through groin. AVMs & AVFs (blood vessel abnormalities coming from birth) can be treated endovascularly. Narrowed and clogged vessels of neck and brain are being treated with stents and balloons. The latest and most common Interventional Neuroradiological treatment is the treatment of acute stroke by mechanical thrombectomy; the blood clot causing paralysis is being removed from the vessel.


Interventional Oncology

Another field of IR which is concerned with cancerous diseases.  Frequently performed operations in Interventional Oncology can be listed as image-guided needle biopsies, chemotherapy port placement, percutaneous (intervention with a needle through skin), ablation (cauterization of tumors with special needles) and transarterial (applied from artery by entering the groin or wrist) cancer treatments. Interventional Oncology is an increasingly important field of science, both in Interventional Radiology and in Cancer Management. In recent years Interventional Oncological procedures have been accepted as the fourth main treatment method for cancer management together with Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy and Surgery.


Procedures performed:

  1. Image-guided painless biopsy (sample taking) procedures of solid organs and tumors.
  2. Diagnosis of breast diseases (Ultrasound, Mammography, MRI, biopsy) and treatments of benign lesions like cysts and fibroadenomas without open surgery and incisions.
  3. Needle ablation of Cysts in kidneys, liver, breast, thyroid gland, ovaries and in other parts of body.
  4. Needle ablation of Tumors in the liver, kidney and lungs (Radiofrequency, Microwave and Cryoablation).
  5. Treatment of liver tumors through groin or wrist arteries (Chemoembolization, Radioembolization).
  6. Diagnosis of thyroid gland nodules and painless treatment with ablation needles (Radiofrequency, Microwave and Alcohol Ablation).
  7. Treatment of goiter by embolization (blocking its vessels).
  8. Establishing a vascular access in patients with vascular access problems especially dialysıs patients or patients with previously blocked veins (Temporary and permanent hemodialysis catheters, Picc catheter).
  9. Safe placement of chemotherapy ports under ultrasound and angiography guidance.
  10. Opening of narrowed, clogged carotid (neck) arteries, as well as arteries of kidneys, intestines, groin and legs (with balloon, stent and curettage methods).
  11. Treatment of Diabetic Foot.
  12. Endovascular therapy of varicocele in men through groin vein without open surgery.
  13. Treatment of Pelvic Congestion Syndrome in women (genital, pelvic and uterine varicose veins) through groin vein.
  14. Embolization(blocking) of uterine myomas (Fibroma) by blocking the arteries through groin without incision.
  15. Opening of blocked fallopian tubes (uterine tube).
  16. Embolization (blocking) of bleeding hemorrhoids without surgery.
  17. The diagnosis and treatment of vascular malformations and hemangiomas (vessel abnormalities coming from birth, and vascular tumors) without open surgery.
  18. Embolization of aneurysms (vessel ballooning) of the aorta and other vessels.
  19. Cerebral vascular diseases (Aneurysm, AVM / AVF, carotid stenting, balloon and stent treatment of narrowed and clogged  cerebral vessels).
  20. Opening of vessels in acute stroke (sudden emergencies associated with blockage of the cerebral arteries).
  21. Diagnosis and investigation of the thrombosis causes in the foot veins, clot removal, clot dissolution and stenting treatments. Treatments of acute and chronic deep venous thrombosis.
  22. Catheter and stent treatment of blockages and narrowing in bile ducts, diagnosis and treatment of gallstones and gallbladder sludge.
  23. Finding bleeding areas and blocking of the bleeding vessels (Gastric, intestinal, pulmonary hemorrhage, postpartum hemorrhage, post-traumatic hemorrhage, nasal hemorrhage).
  24. Treatment for prostatic hyperplasia without surgery (Prostatic artery embolization).
  25. Fusion biopsy in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (Targeted biopsy).
  26. Treatment of ureteral obstruction (Nephrostomy, balloon dilatation and stent placement).
  27. Interventional Pain Management: Needle therapy of back, foot, neck, shoulder, arm pains and pains related to cancer.
  28. Treatment of Benign Liver Hemangioma, Renal angiomyolipomas by embolization without open surgery.
  29. Permanent treatment of fluid collection in the abdomen and lungs.

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